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Blood pressure

This photo shows a nurse taking a woman’s blood pressure with a blood pressure cuff. The nurse is pumping the cuff with her right hand and holding a stethoscope on the patient’s arm with her left hand.
A proficiency in anatomy and physiology is fundamental to any career in the health professions. (credit: Bryan Mason/flickr)

Chapter objectives

After studying this chapter, you will be able to:

  • Distinguish between anatomy and physiology, and identify several branches of each
  • Describe the structure of the body, from simplest to most complex, in terms of the six levels of organization
  • Identify the functional characteristics of human life
  • Identify the four requirements for human survival
  • Define homeostasis and explain its importance to normal human functioning
  • Use appropriate anatomical terminology to identify key body structures, body regions, and directions in the body
  • Compare and contrast at least four medical imagining techniques in terms of their function and use in medicine

Though you may approach a course in anatomy and physiology strictly as a requirement for your field of study, the knowledge you gain in this course will serve you well in many aspects of your life. An understanding of anatomy and physiology is not only fundamental to any career in the health professions, but it can also benefit your own health. Familiarity with the human body can help you make healthful choices and prompt you to take appropriate action when signs of illness arise. Your knowledge in this field will help you understand news about nutrition, medications, medical devices, and procedures and help you understand genetic or infectious diseases. At some point, everyone will have a problem with some aspect of his or her body and your knowledge can help you to be a better parent, spouse, partner, friend, colleague, or caregiver.

This chapter begins with an overview of anatomy and physiology and a preview of the body regions and functions. It then covers the characteristics of life and how the body works to maintain stable conditions. It introduces a set of standard terms for body structures and for planes and positions in the body that will serve as a foundation for more comprehensive information covered later in the text. It ends with examples of medical imaging used to see inside the living body.

Quiz PDF eBook: 
Protozoal and Parasitic Infections
Download Protozoal Quiz PDF eBook
35 Pages
English US
Educational Materials

Sample Questions from the Protozoal and Parasitic Infections Quiz

Question: The presence of ingested erythrocytes is the sole morphologic characteristic in identifying which of the following Entamoeba spp?


E. dispar

E. moshkovskii

E. histolytica

E. bangladeshi

Question: Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding laboratory diagnosis of primary amebic meningoencephalitis?


Lymphocytes are the predominant cells in the CSF

Trophozoites can be seen in CSF GS

CSF is hemorrhagic late in the course of the disease

CSF WBC is persistently low

Question: The most common cause of diarrhea in returning travelers?


Giardia lamblia

E. histolytica



Question: A 27 year-old male presents with increasingly severe diarrhea (frequent, mucoid-stained stools, with visible blood), accompanied by general abdominal tenderness. What is the drug of choice for this patient?


Tinidazole + luminal agent


Metronidazole +luminal agent


Question: What is the cornerstone of therapy for primary amebic encephalitis due to Naegleria?


polyhexamethylene biguanide

intravenous amphotericin

intrathecal amphotericin


Question: The most common disease manifestation of infection with E. histolytica?


Asymptomatic intraluminal amoebiasis

Amebic diarrhea without dysentery

Amebic dysentery

Amebic liver abscess

Question: A 35 year old male, returning from India sought consult for fever, diarrhea and a dull constant aching right upper quadrant pain. He has hepatomegaly, leukocytosis and elevated alkaline phosphatase levels. What is the most sensitive test to diagnose this patient's condition?


stool ova and parasite examination

stool culture and sensitivity

stool antigen detection for E. histolytica

real-time PCR for E. histolytica

Question: A 24 year-old male without co-morbidities, was admitted for abrupt onset of fever, anorexia, nausea and vomiting accompanied by headache 5 days after swimming in the river. He was obtunded, but without focal neurologic signs. His condition rapidly progressed to coma. What is the most likely pathogenesis for his condition?


The organism gains entry through the lower respiratory tract and enters the circulation before disseminating to the brain

CNS invasion occurs after nasal inoculation with the organism, which disrupts the olfactory mucosa

The organism end enters the circulation before disseminating to the brainnters through ulcerated skin a

None of the above

Question: Water is the only mechanism of transmission for this protozoal infection


Acanthamoeba spp.

Balantidium coli

Cryptosporidium spp.

Giardia lamblia

Question: The non-pathogenic species of Entamoeba


E. bangladeshi

E. dispar

E. moshkovskii

None of the above

Question: An 18-year old female without co-morbidities was admitted for sudden onset of fever , nausea, vomiting 3 days after swimming in a river. She had signs of meningismus. Her condition rapidly deteriorated and she expired within a week after onset of symptoms. If H and E stain of brain tissue will be performed, what is the expected appearance of the organism's infective stage?


Uni-nucleate trophozoites

double-walled cyst

Trophozoites with prominent dense central nucleolus

single-walled cyst

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Jesenia Wofford
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