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Blood pressure

This photo shows a nurse taking a woman’s blood pressure with a blood pressure cuff. The nurse is pumping the cuff with her right hand and holding a stethoscope on the patient’s arm with her left hand.
A proficiency in anatomy and physiology is fundamental to any career in the health professions. (credit: Bryan Mason/flickr)

Chapter objectives

After studying this chapter, you will be able to:

  • Distinguish between anatomy and physiology, and identify several branches of each
  • Describe the structure of the body, from simplest to most complex, in terms of the six levels of organization
  • Identify the functional characteristics of human life
  • Identify the four requirements for human survival
  • Define homeostasis and explain its importance to normal human functioning
  • Use appropriate anatomical terminology to identify key body structures, body regions, and directions in the body
  • Compare and contrast at least four medical imagining techniques in terms of their function and use in medicine

Though you may approach a course in anatomy and physiology strictly as a requirement for your field of study, the knowledge you gain in this course will serve you well in many aspects of your life. An understanding of anatomy and physiology is not only fundamental to any career in the health professions, but it can also benefit your own health. Familiarity with the human body can help you make healthful choices and prompt you to take appropriate action when signs of illness arise. Your knowledge in this field will help you understand news about nutrition, medications, medical devices, and procedures and help you understand genetic or infectious diseases. At some point, everyone will have a problem with some aspect of his or her body and your knowledge can help you to be a better parent, spouse, partner, friend, colleague, or caregiver.

This chapter begins with an overview of anatomy and physiology and a preview of the body regions and functions. It then covers the characteristics of life and how the body works to maintain stable conditions. It introduces a set of standard terms for body structures and for planes and positions in the body that will serve as a foundation for more comprehensive information covered later in the text. It ends with examples of medical imaging used to see inside the living body.

Exam PDF eBook: 
Dr Landholt Large Animal Medicine-GI quiz
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25 Pages
English US
Educational Materials

Sample Questions from the Dr Landholt Large Animal Medicine-GI quiz Exam

Question: Which of the following is the first step in treatment of an esophageal obstruction in a horse?




Give IV fluids


Use a laryngoscope to remove obstruction

Question: 2 yr old horse presented for poor performance training over last month, waxing and waning appetite, prominent lymph nodes. PE: TPR is WNL. Vaccination and deworming is up to date. Other horses at barn :normal. There is small amount of nasal serous discharge. You decide to diagnose as gastric ulcer and give oral antihistamine(Cimedtidine) for 3 weeks . On recheck , horse has had no improvement. Would increasing the amount of concentrate feed be a good next step?




Question: How long should horse with gastric ulcer have access to food?


12 hrs/day

6 hrs/day

24 hrs/day

Horses with gastric ulcers should not be eating more than a few hours a day .

Question: 22 yr old pony mare treated for high choke 3 days ago. This horse now has loss of appetite, lethargic, salivation. PE reveals T :103.2F (fever) HR 60 (tachycardic) RR 32 (tachypnea). There is swelling on left side of neck and increased lung sounds. trachael auscult WNL. CBC: Increased Fibrinogen with mild anemia and leukocytosis. What is most likely diagnosis?



Aspiration pneumonia

Esophageal perforation

Esophageal stricture

Equine Cushings

Question: 17 yr old quarter horse gelding presents for laminitis . This horse has a long shagggy hair coat and a "pot belly" appearance". Vaccinations (tetanus, influenza, rhino, EEE/WEE) and deworming were up to date. This spring, about a week ago, the owner noted that he was very reluctant to walk and appeared to spend much time lying down. This horse was diagnosed with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (Equine Cushings). What test should you run to confirm this diagnosis?


Insulin tolerance test

Baseline insulin test

Dexamethasone suppression test


Radiograph to show laminitis

Question: Dr. Landholt hates Atropine as a treatment for choke because it can cause colic. True/False




Question: _______________ will gets diarrhea if have a gastric ulcer.



Adult horses

Question: What is the #1 clinical sign for gastric ulcers in horses?


decreased saliva

decreased blood flow

poor performance

poor appetite


Question: Which of the following can create gastric ulcer in a horse?


Strenuous exercise


Decreased blood flow


All of the above

Question: What is the most effective drug for treating ulcers?







Question: Pergolide and Bromocriptine are dopamine antagonist used to treat Equine Cushings. True/False




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